Canon Firmware Decrypter and Unpacker


Fixed a bug in decryption routine that allowed for further unpacking of firmware. Thanks to iiewpie for demonstrating that further unpacking is possible and prompting me to look for the bug.

 * Canon *.fir files decrypter/unpacker.
 * Using this program to decrypt *.fir files provided by Canon may be in violation
 * of the license agreement between you and Canon.
 * Copyright 2003 Alex Bernstein.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>

typedef unsigned short uint16;
typedef unsigned long uint32;
typedef unsigned char uchar;
typedef unsigned char boolean;
#define TRUE  (1==1)
#define FALSE (!TRUE)
#define GETLENGTH(h) ((*(uchar *)&h.length) | \
                      (*((uchar *)&h.length + 1) << 8) | \
                      (*((uchar *)&h.length + 2) << 16) | \
                      (*((uchar *)&h.length + 3) << 24))

char crypt1[] = {
0x41, 0xCA, 0x42, 0xF9, 0x3C, 0x6D, 0x9D, 0xDF, 0xD8, 0x19, 0x84, 0x08, 0x50, 0xFB, 0x67, 0xA1,
0xAD, 0x35, 0xF2, 0xCE, 0xDF, 0x9A, 0xF3, 0xC4, 0xF5, 0x22, 0x1A, 0x8A, 0xD5, 0x64, 0x08, 0x65,
0xD3, 0x2C, 0x96, 0xB6, 0x08, 0x11, 0x3A, 0xB3, 0x90, 0x08, 0xE6, 0x2E, 0x88, 0xED, 0x24, 0xFB,
0x24, 0x28, 0x82, 0x3D, 0x39, 0xA8, 0xF3, 0x52, 0x98, 0xF9, 0xA7, 0x75, 0x52, 0x63, 0x0A, 0xF9,
0xED, 0x7A, 0x82, 0x02, 0x1F, 0x94, 0x76, 0xE1, 0xBA, 0xB6, 0xB9, 0x7B, 0x6C, 0xA2, 0xDA, 0x16,
0x5B, 0x58, 0x51, 0x20, 0xBC, 0xF1, 0xD8, 0x34, 0x36, 0xAA, 0xD1, 0xA5, 0xEF, 0xF4, 0xE8, 0x50,
0xDD, 0x09, 0x95, 0x8D, 0xC9, 0x06, 0x8D, 0xF0, 0x2D, 0xA2, 0xF1, 0x0D, 0x5E, 0x14, 0x09, 0x10,
0x3E, 0x9E, 0x58, 0xCA, 0x39, 0xAB, 0x11, 0x4F, 0x7F, 0x08, 0x8B, 0xCC, 0x4D, 0x9E, 0xD7, 0x20,
0x1D, 0x8F, 0xCA, 0x46, 0xAE, 0x17, 0xB5, 0x6B, 0xE6, 0x0A, 0xE9, 0x9A, 0x6E, 0x4A, 0x4C, 0xCC,
0xA6, 0xEB, 0xD8, 0x2B, 0xF1, 0xB0, 0x2F, 0xFB, 0x5F, 0xF7, 0x57, 0x06, 0xB3, 0x77, 0xFC, 0x1B,
0x98, 0xD9, 0xBA, 0x5A, 0x5F, 0xA4, 0xE0, 0x1F, 0x74, 0x99, 0xF1, 0x69, 0xA3, 0x8A, 0x43, 0x99,
0xCE, 0x77, 0x04, 0xCC, 0x47, 0x7D, 0xCB, 0x39, 0x6E, 0x2D, 0x5A, 0x59, 0xE4, 0x92, 0x91, 0x37,
0x1D, 0x60, 0xAA, 0xE5, 0x4F, 0xF8, 0xFA, 0xC1, 0x59, 0x52, 0x2C, 0xAB, 0x09, 0x0F, 0xEE, 0x5E,
0x5B, 0xC0, 0x64, 0xB3, 0xF5, 0xC2, 0xD3, 0xCC, 0x1E, 0x2C, 0xB4, 0x0B, 0xA8, 0xBF, 0x40, 0x77,
0x08, 0xA0, 0xC9, 0x93, 0xDF, 0xA8, 0x79, 0x28, 0x41, 0x93, 0x37, 0x2B, 0xF7, 0xD4, 0xAD, 0x1B,
0x18, 0x9E, 0xE0, 0xB4, 0x59, 0x60, 0x58, 0xEA, 0xAB, 0x2A, 0x6C, 0xD4, 0x07, 0xEE, 0xEF, 0x18,
0x65, 0xFF, 0x7F, 0x6F, 0x1E, 0xDE, 0xF3, 0x83, 0xF4, 0xB6, 0xF8, 0x7E, 0x0E, 0xBD, 0xB3, 0x6A,
0x91, 0x5D, 0x24, 0x9F, 0x97, 0x74, 0x60, 0xD6, 0xC9, 0xE2, 0xA6, 0x54, 0x49, 0xE8, 0xB2, 0x6B,
0x4E, 0xBD, 0x41, 0x2C, 0xC9, 0x40, 0xCF, 0x85, 0x0A, 0xCA, 0x8E, 0x67, 0x99, 0x43, 0x2C, 0x9A,
0x56, 0x3E, 0x26, 0x23, 0x80, 0xA5, 0x27, 0xD9, 0x05, 0xD4, 0x82, 0x6E, 0x65, 0xE9, 0x81, 0x4E,
0xB9, 0x58, 0xE3, 0x3F, 0x6A, 0xEA, 0x5C, 0xE7, 0x83, 0x13, 0x2A, 0x63, 0x59, 0x60, 0x24, 0x7A,
0x0C, 0x6D, 0x79, 0x80, 0x13, 0xED, 0x25, 0xA2, 0x50, 0x15, 0x4B, 0xB3, 0x03, 0x62, 0x33, 0xF5,
0x60, 0x9D, 0x3F, 0xC5, 0xE2, 0xB7, 0xC8, 0xAF, 0xC8, 0xEB, 0x81, 0x76, 0x8C, 0x9D, 0xE9, 0x62,
0xDA, 0x13, 0x99, 0x3B, 0xA5, 0xDE, 0x84, 0xD3, 0x20, 0x24, 0x5C, 0xAB, 0xD9, 0xCB, 0x63, 0xFB,
0x16, 0x39, 0xB7, 0xB3, 0x91, 0xD3, 0xD3, 0xA8, 0x42, 0xA0, 0xE3, 0x27, 0xE8, 0x45, 0x74, 0xD8,
0x24, 0xEC, 0xE2, 0xFE, 0x3B, 0x73, 0xF5, 0xDC, 0xBE, 0xB2, 0xED, 0xE6, 0xAD, 0x96, 0xBB, 0x23,
0xD6, 0x7F, 0x32, 0x03, 0x71, 0xD0, 0x33, 0x85, 0xC1, 0x86, 0x80, 0xE4, 0x07, 0x3F, 0xF1, 0x79,
0x85, 0xC1, 0xB9, 0xCB, 0x36, 0x8C, 0x9A, 0x01, 0xAD, 0x1E, 0xA2, 0xF1, 0x16, 0x45, 0x50, 0x30,
0xE9, 0x52, 0x4A, 0x80, 0x88, 0xA7, 0x80, 0x27, 0x03, 0x3E, 0xF3, 0x1D, 0xD7, 0x86, 0x4B, 0xF1,
0x9D, 0x69, 0x45, 0xE0, 0xD4, 0x31, 0x89, 0xDC, 0x47, 0x45, 0x94, 0xC5, 0x4D, 0x20, 0x22, 0xB4,
0xAB, 0x71, 0x36, 0x6B, 0xBC, 0xAF, 0x74, 0x20, 0x0E, 0x6B, 0xB0, 0xB8, 0xB5, 0xF0, 0x34, 0xCA,
0x02, 0xAD, 0x7B, 0x35, 0x3D, 0x50, 0x01, 0x9E, 0x30, 0x7B, 0x69, 0x2F, 0x6A, 0x79, 0xF4, 0xEF

char crypt2[] = {
0xA5, 0xF5, 0x2A, 0xBE, 0x62, 0x66, 0x1C, 0x80, 0x87, 0x3F, 0x91, 0x01, 0x6E, 0xBC, 0x87, 0x02,
0xD0, 0x2A, 0x3A, 0xC4, 0x65, 0x3C, 0x91, 0x35, 0xB5, 0xAE, 0x21, 0x21, 0xF5, 0x3F, 0xAC, 0x1F,
0xBE, 0x92, 0xA6, 0xF2, 0xA8, 0x42, 0x39, 0x8F, 0x41, 0x95, 0x91, 0xBD, 0x4C, 0xAD, 0x85, 0xC7,
0xB7, 0xD6, 0xAE, 0x1C, 0xE2, 0x62, 0xEB, 0xC2, 0x03, 0x5D, 0xD6, 0x4E, 0x7B, 0x59, 0x0F, 0xDD,
0xB7, 0x3E, 0x22, 0x55, 0x45, 0x91, 0x81, 0x71, 0x71, 0x9F, 0xE8, 0x6D, 0x67, 0x40, 0x8C, 0x43,
0x30, 0xAA, 0x43, 0x39, 0x3C, 0x35, 0x4E, 0xAF, 0x67, 0x50, 0xDA, 0xE5, 0xA3, 0xA8, 0x08, 0x9C,
0x59, 0x3E, 0xEB, 0xD0, 0x01, 0xFB, 0xE5, 0x15, 0x59, 0xFF, 0x76, 0xD7, 0x10, 0x39, 0x88, 0x41,
0x85, 0xE1, 0xF4, 0x43, 0xE3, 0x66, 0xFE, 0x29, 0x7E, 0x50, 0xD4, 0x82, 0x0F, 0x17, 0x38, 0x10,
0x45, 0x54, 0x3A, 0x53, 0xF8, 0x1C, 0xA1, 0x08, 0x5B, 0x60, 0x25, 0xCA, 0xF7, 0xE7, 0x35, 0x3F,
0xC3, 0xF9, 0x02, 0x58, 0x14, 0xE6, 0x71, 0x16, 0x03, 0x1C, 0x8E, 0x0F, 0x34, 0xFE, 0xF5, 0x0A,
0x31, 0x03, 0x49, 0x41, 0x07, 0xB3, 0x63, 0x21, 0xED, 0x5B, 0x40, 0xF2, 0xE2, 0x24, 0x14, 0x63,
0x8B, 0x45, 0x9D, 0xA0, 0x65, 0x7A, 0xCE, 0xDF, 0x90, 0xD6, 0xC5, 0x7B, 0x26, 0xE3, 0x38, 0xF1,
0x31, 0x62, 0xB9, 0x60, 0xE7, 0x02, 0x23, 0xEE, 0x10, 0x44, 0x2B, 0x1B, 0x46, 0x07, 0x87, 0x04,
0xD5, 0xB2, 0x33, 0x8B, 0x97, 0x75, 0xD7, 0x0F, 0x07, 0xB7, 0xBB, 0x83, 0xC8, 0x3E, 0xDA, 0xF4,
0x5C, 0x70, 0x4D, 0xDF, 0x70, 0x43, 0xF4, 0x15, 0x6D, 0x6C, 0xB2, 0x59, 0x77, 0xEA, 0xB5, 0x86,
0x4B, 0xF7, 0x95, 0x80, 0x2A, 0x74, 0x37, 0x04, 0x50, 0x94, 0xF4, 0x92, 0x6D, 0x45, 0x73, 0x49,
0x90, 0xA8, 0x22, 0x03, 0xB8, 0x0A, 0x22, 0x2D, 0xBB, 0xAD, 0xDF, 0x54, 0xB5, 0x3D, 0xB7, 0x8C,
0xDE, 0xE6, 0x2A, 0x7D, 0x31, 0xEB, 0x7E, 0x82, 0xFF, 0x1D, 0xFF, 0xF7, 0x70, 0xE6, 0x57, 0xAC,
0x34, 0x40, 0x55, 0xEC, 0x75, 0x77, 0x03, 0xF2, 0x29, 0xD5, 0x4C, 0x75, 0xB8, 0xF7, 0x5B, 0x91,
0x75, 0x8C, 0x54, 0xF3, 0xCB, 0x36, 0xBB, 0xA4, 0xF6, 0x83, 0xD4, 0x74, 0xE4, 0xA8, 0x57, 0xB0,
0x2B, 0x95, 0x5E, 0x18, 0xFE, 0x66, 0xC1, 0x11, 0xF6, 0xCE, 0xAE, 0xBB, 0x93, 0xE6, 0x8B, 0xAB,
0x61, 0xFC, 0x93, 0x56, 0xDA, 0x4F, 0x66, 0x12, 0xF1, 0x6A, 0x07, 0xDD, 0x6F, 0x6D, 0xBE, 0x76,
0xC9, 0xA3, 0xCB, 0xB9, 0x96, 0xB7, 0x57, 0x70, 0x09, 0x3C, 0xE1, 0x93, 0xE9, 0xD3, 0x54, 0x1C,
0xAA, 0xC4, 0xD1, 0x75, 0xC2, 0x99, 0x12, 0x12, 0xCA, 0x50, 0xB5, 0x32, 0xC7, 0x85, 0x75, 0x3E,
0xD3, 0x08, 0x75, 0xEF, 0x25, 0xF8, 0xB5, 0xED, 0xB1, 0xC0, 0xD7, 0x25, 0xFB, 0x8A, 0x23, 0xEB,
0xA0, 0xC1, 0x03, 0x0D, 0xFC, 0x1B, 0xAB, 0x89, 0xAA, 0x6B, 0x76, 0xC4, 0x31, 0x45, 0xA9, 0x1D,
0x65, 0x3F, 0xFD, 0x08, 0x69, 0x34, 0x15, 0x13, 0x16, 0x42, 0x03, 0x6E, 0x81, 0x36, 0x97, 0x5F,
0x93, 0x22, 0xFA, 0x50, 0x1F, 0x13, 0x82, 0x61, 0x78, 0xEA, 0x28, 0xD5, 0x68, 0x96, 0xA9, 0x63,
0x55, 0x98, 0x2F, 0x24, 0xFB, 0x42, 0x76, 0xF9, 0x1F, 0xBF, 0x79, 0x28, 0x22, 0xC7, 0xC1, 0x17,
0x36, 0x1D, 0xC0, 0xB5, 0x51, 0x42, 0x6D, 0x52, 0x3D, 0x56, 0x8C, 0x67, 0x25, 0xC8, 0x02, 0x04,
0x26, 0xE2, 0xBC, 0x47, 0xD1, 0x5A, 0xB7, 0x99, 0xC2, 0x8E, 0x01, 0x2D, 0xC2, 0xFE, 0xF0, 0x02,
0x4E, 0x94, 0x80, 0x14, 0x20, 0xF0, 0x55, 0xD4, 0x58, 0x93, 0x9E, 0x33, 0x5B, 0xA5, 0xE6, 0xC6,

#define CRYPT1_SIZE (sizeof(crypt1)/sizeof(crypt1[0]))
#define CRYPT2_SIZE (sizeof(crypt2)/sizeof(crypt2[0]))

typedef struct {
  uint32 length;
  uint32 field4;
  char type[32];
  char description[32];
  char name[80];
} header_t;

#define HEADER_SIZE (sizeof(header_t)/sizeof(char))
#define PAGE_DECRYPT_SIZE 0x4000

uint32   file_offset = 0;

 * decryption routine
 * in: buffer to decrypt, length, offset into decryption table
void decrypt(uchar *buf, uint32 len, uint32 offset) {
  uint32 i = offset % CRYPT1_SIZE;
  uint32 j = offset % CRYPT2_SIZE;
  uint32 counter = len;

  while (counter) {
    *buf = *buf ^ crypt1[i] ^ crypt2[j];
    if (i >= CRYPT1_SIZE) i=0;
    if (j >= CRYPT2_SIZE) j=0;

uint32 read_and_decrypt_buffer(FILE *fp, uchar *buf, uint32 len) {
  uchar *decrypt_buf = buf;
  uint32 bytes_read;

  bytes_read = fread(buf, sizeof(uchar), len, fp);
  decrypt(decrypt_buf, bytes_read, file_offset);
  file_offset += bytes_read;

  return bytes_read;

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
  FILE     *in, *out;
  header_t header;
  uint32   length;
  uint32   bytes_read;
  uchar    *image;
  char     filename[100];

  if ((argc < 2) || (argc > 3)) {
    printf("Usage: decrypt inputfile [output_directory]\n");
    return -1;

  if ((in = fopen(argv[1], "r")) == NULL) {
    printf("Can't open file name %s\n", argv[1]);
    return -1;

  printf("Offset     Type     Description          Name         Length\n");
  printf("---------- -------- -------------------- ------------ ------\n");
  while(TRUE) {
    bytes_read = read_and_decrypt_buffer(in, (char *)&header, HEADER_SIZE);
    if (!bytes_read) break;
    length = GETLENGTH(header);
    printf("0x%08X %-8s %-20s %-12s %6d\n", file_offset, header.type,
           header.description,, length);
    if (!length) continue;

    image = (uchar *)calloc(length, sizeof(uchar));
    if (!image) {
      printf("no memory!\n");
      goto __exit;
    bytes_read = read_and_decrypt_buffer(in, image, length);

    if (argc == 3) {
      /* save found program */
      strcpy(filename, argv[2]);
      strcat(filename, "/");
      if ((out = fopen(filename, "w")) == NULL) {
        printf("Can't open file name %s\n", filename);
        goto __exit;
      fwrite(image, sizeof(char), bytes_read, out);

    if (bytes_read != length) {
      printf("wrong number of bytes read\n");
      goto __exit;


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